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J Hand Surg Am. 1989 May;14(3):524-30.

Implantable functional neuromuscular stimulation in the tetraplegic hand.

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  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Metropolitan General/Highland View Hospital, Ohio.


Functional neuromuscular stimulation of the upper extremity provides manipulative capacity to persons with high level tetraplegia who have insufficient voluntary muscles available for tendon transfer surgery. We report an enhancement of the technique to include surgical implantation of a multichannel receiver-stimulator, sensory feedback stimulation, and tendon transfers. Tendon transfers were done with spastic, rather than voluntary motors employing standard surgical techniques. The system described has been operational for more than 1 1/2 years.

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