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J Biomed Mater Res. 1989 Aug;23(8):845-62.

Elimination of nickel, cobalt, and chromium following repeated injections of high dose metal salts.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106.


A study was conducted to determine the ability of hamsters to eliminate in the urine, or store in the organs, large quantities of metal salts given over a period of several months. In addition, the effect of prior immunization on metal ion clearance was determined. The results indicated that nickel was rapidly eliminated in the urine and that the level in the organs was similar to that of control animals. Cobalt was eliminated more slowly than was nickel. The organ levels of cobalt were similar to those of control animals with a slight elevation in the liver of the injected animals. Chromium was eliminated in the urine very slowly, was red cell associated, and the levels were elevated in all the organs (liver, lung, spleen, kidney) compared to control. Prior immunization with metal salts increased the storage of chromium.

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