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Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1989 Jun;23(2):187-96.

Validity of the GHQ-28 in New Zealand women.

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  • 1Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago Medical School.


The GHQ-28 was validated against the short PSE in a New Zealand community study of female psychiatric morbidity. The GHQ-28 total scores were significantly correlated with the PSE scores. Higher coefficients were obtained using the scoring method of Goodchild and Duncan-Jones than with the standard scoring method. In this data set, the 3/4 cutoff had the best sensitivity and specificity. The correlations of the GHQ-28 subscales with ICD diagnostic classes and ad hoc PSE sub-scores were also statistically significant. Because the distribution of the GHQ-28 scores is positively skewed, non-parametric statistics may be preferable to the traditional Pearson's correlation coefficient. Overall, the results from this study confirm the GHQ-28 to be a valid and practical screen for presence or absence of psychiatric disorder in New Zealand women.

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