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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;70(4):414-23. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.226. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Long-term association between dairy consumption and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Lu L1,2,3,4, Xun P5, Wan Y2, He K5, Cai W1,3,4,6.

Author information

  • 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
  • 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
  • 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, China.
  • 4Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Research, Shanghai, China.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
  • 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Data from small-scale, short-term, clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of dairy consumption on the risk of childhood obesity; however, the long-term association is unclear. Therefore, we aim to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through March 2015. Additional studies were retrieved via Google Scholar or a hand review of the reference lists from relevant articles. Pooled associations of interest were estimated by using a random-effects model. The heterogeneity for each pooled analysis was evaluated by I(2) statistic as well as by Cochran's Q test. Publication bias was assessed by using both Egger's and Begg's tests.

RESULTS:

Ten studies comprising 46 011 children and adolescents with an average 3-year follow-up were included. As compared with those who were in the lowest group of dairy consumption, children in the highest intake group were 38% less likely to have childhood overweight/obesity (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.80). With each 1 serving/day increment in dairy consumption, the percentage of body fat was reduced by 0.65% (β=0.65; 95% CI: -1.35, 0.06; P=0.07), and the risk of overweight/obesity was 13% lower (OR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98).

CONCLUSIONS:

Accumulated evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests that dairy consumption is inversely and longitudinally associated with the risk of childhood overweight/obesity. Further studies are warranted to examine the types of dairy products in relation to the risk of childhood overweight/obesity.

PMID:
26862005
[PubMed - in process]

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