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Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):172-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16475. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

An ID2-dependent mechanism for VHL inactivation in cancer.

Author information

  • 1Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
  • 2Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
  • 3Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
  • 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, NYU School of Medicine, New York 10014, USA.
  • 5Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
  • 6Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
  • 7Department of Pathology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
  • 8Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.

Abstract

Mechanisms that maintain cancer stem cells are crucial to tumour progression. The ID2 protein supports cancer hallmarks including the cancer stem cell state. HIFα transcription factors, most notably HIF2α (also known as EPAS1), are expressed in and required for maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the pathways that are engaged by ID2 or drive HIF2α accumulation in CSCs have remained unclear. Here we report that DYRK1A and DYRK1B kinases phosphorylate ID2 on threonine 27 (Thr27). Hypoxia downregulates this phosphorylation via inactivation of DYRK1A and DYRK1B. The activity of these kinases is stimulated in normoxia by the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase PHD1 (also known as EGLN2). ID2 binds to the VHL ubiquitin ligase complex, displaces VHL-associated Cullin 2, and impairs HIF2α ubiquitylation and degradation. Phosphorylation of Thr27 of ID2 by DYRK1 blocks ID2-VHL interaction and preserves HIF2α ubiquitylation. In glioblastoma, ID2 positively modulates HIF2α activity. Conversely, elevated expression of DYRK1 phosphorylates Thr27 of ID2, leading to HIF2α destabilization, loss of glioma stemness, inhibition of tumour growth, and a more favourable outcome for patients with glioblastoma.

PMID:
26735018
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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