Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
AIDS. 2016 Jan;30(2):231-9. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000901.

Prevalence and significance of proximal renal tubular abnormalities in HIV-infected patients receiving tenofovir.

Author information

  • 1aDepartment of Infectious Diseases bDepartment of Biochemistry cDepartment of Nephrology, Ramon y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain.



Patients receiving tenofovir, disoproxil, fumarate (TDF) had an increased prevalence of proximal renal tubular dysfunction (PRTD), but contributing factors and its clinical significance remain controversial.


Cross-sectional evaluation of different urinary parameters (proteinuria, albuminuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, glycosuria) in 200 HIV-infected patients receiving TDF, 26 following TDF discontinuation, and 22 never treated with TDF, included in a prospective cohort study. PRTD was defined as two or more tubular abnormalities.


After a median of 65 months (interquartile range, 42.7-84.7), at least one tubular alteration was found in 72% of patients, mostly proteinuria (42, 50, and 14% in current, previous and never TDF use; P=0.02) and phosphaturia (46, 42, and 14%; respectively, P < 0.01). PRTD was found in 63 patients (32%) receiving TDF, ranging from 14 to 46% according to concomitant hepatitis C virus coinfection, diabetes mellitus or hypertension arterial, in contrast with six (23%) following TDF discontinuation, and zero cases in no TDF-treated patients. The use of TDF [odds ratio (OR) 13.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-22.7; P = 0.01], cumulative time on combination antiretroviral therapy (OR 1.011; 95% CI 1.07-1.019 per month; P = 0.01), and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per ml/min per 1.73 m higher; P = 0.04) were associated with PRTD. The number of tubular abnormalities was linearly associated with eGFR decline since TDF initiation (β-coefficient -0.15, P = 0.02), together with age (-0.18; P = 0.01), baseline eGFR (0.49, P = 0.01), diabetes mellitus (-0.19, P = 0.02), and time on TDF (-0.23; P = 0.01).


The use of TDF leads to an increased rate of tubular dysfunction, and modulated by age, baseline eGFR, and classical factors, is associated with kidney function decline.

[PubMed - in process]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk