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J Nutr. 2016 Jan;146(1):81-9. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.220699. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Total and Full-Fat, but Not Low-Fat, Dairy Product Intakes are Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adults.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nutrition and Food and Nutrition Research Center, Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, Brazil; michele.drehmer@ufrgs.br.
  • 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN;
  • 3Department of Social Medicine, and Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, Brazil;
  • 4Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil; and.
  • 5Center for Clinical and Epidemiologic Research, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • 6Department of Nutrition and Food and Nutrition Research Center, Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, Brazil;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Growing evidence suggests that dairy products may have beneficial cardiometabolic effects. The current guidelines, however, limit the intake of full-fat dairy products.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the association of dairy consumption, types of dairy products, and dairy fat content with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn).

METHODS:

We analyzed baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of 15,105 adults aged 35-74 y. We excluded participants with known diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or other chronic diseases, and those who had extreme values of energy intake, leaving 9835 for analysis. Dairy consumption was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. We computed servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy intake. We computed a metabolic risk score (MetScore) as the mean z score of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol (negative z score), fasting triglycerides, and fasting glucose. We performed multivariable linear regression to test the association of servings per day of dairy products with MetScore.

RESULTS:

In analyses that adjusted for demographics, menopausal status, family history of diabetes, dietary intake, nondietary lifestyle factors, and body mass index, we observed a graded inverse association for MetScore with total dairy (-0.044 ± 0.01, P = 0.009 for each additional dairy servings per day) and full-fat dairy (-0.126 ± 0.03, P < 0.001) but not with low-fat dairy intake. Associations were no longer present after additional adjustments for dairy-derived saturated fatty acids.

CONCLUSIONS:

Total and especially full-fat dairy food intakes are inversely and independently associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older adults, associations that seem to be mediated by dairy saturated fatty acids. Dietary recommendations to avoid full-fat dairy intake are not supported by our findings.

© 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

KEYWORDS:

cohort study; dairy consumption; diabetes; metabolic syndrome; saturated fatty acids

PMID:
26511614
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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