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Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 28;114(8):1313-20. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002937. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

Author information

  • 11Institute of Population Health Sciences,National Health Research Institutes,Zhunan,Miaoli County 35053,Taiwan.
  • 22Medical Mission,Tzu Chi Foundation,Hualien 97002,Taiwan.
  • 34MJ Health Management Institution,Taipei 10018,Taiwan.

Abstract

Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce. We studied how several sub-types of vegetarian diets affect metabolic traits, including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, TAG and TC:HDL ratio, through both cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The study used the MJ Health Screening database, with data collected from 1994 to 2008 in Taiwan, which included 4415 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 1855 lacto-vegetarians and 1913 vegans; each vegetarian was matched with five non-vegetarians based on age, sex and study site. In the longitudinal follow-up, each additional year of vegan diet lowered the risk of obesity by 7 % (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99), whereas each additional year of lacto-vegetarian diet lowered the risk of elevated SBP by 8 % (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99) and elevated glucose by 7 % (95 % CI 0·87, 0·99), and each additional year of ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet increased abnormal HDL by 7 % (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12), compared with non-vegetarians. In the cross-sectional comparisons, all sub-types of vegetarians had lower likelihoods of abnormalities compared with non-vegetarians on all metabolic traits (P<0·001 for all comparisons), except for HDL and TAG. The better metabolic profile in vegetarians is partially attributable to lower BMI. With proper management of TAG and HDL, along with caution about the intake of refined carbohydrates and fructose, a plant-based diet may benefit all aspects of the metabolic profile.

KEYWORDS:

DBP diastolic blood pressure; FBG fasting blood glucose; Longitudinal studies; MS metabolic syndrome; Metabolic traits; NHRI National Health Research Institutes; SBP systolic blood pressure; TC total cholesterol; Vegetarian diets; WC waist circumference

PMID:
26355190
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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