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Cell Metab. 2015 Sep 1;22(3):508-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.06.009. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

2-Hydroxyglutarate Inhibits ATP Synthase and mTOR Signaling.

Author information

  • 1Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 2Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 3Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 5Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 6Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, and Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 7Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
  • 8Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 9Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 10Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 11Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 12Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; UCLA Metabolomics Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 13Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; UCLA Metabolomics Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 14Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; UCLA Metabolomics Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 15Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 16Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  • 17Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address: jinghuang.ucla@gmail.com.

Abstract

We discovered recently that the central metabolite α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) extends the lifespan of C. elegans through inhibition of ATP synthase and TOR signaling. Here we find, unexpectedly, that (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG), an oncometabolite that interferes with various α-KG-mediated processes, similarly extends worm lifespan. (R)-2HG accumulates in human cancers carrying neomorphic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. We show that, like α-KG, both (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG bind and inhibit ATP synthase and inhibit mTOR signaling. These effects are mirrored in IDH1 mutant cells, suggesting a growth-suppressive function of (R)-2HG. Consistently, inhibition of ATP synthase by 2-HG or α-KG in glioblastoma cells is sufficient for growth arrest and tumor cell killing under conditions of glucose limitation, e.g., when ketone bodies (instead of glucose) are supplied for energy. These findings inform therapeutic strategies and open avenues for investigating the roles of 2-HG and metabolites in biology and disease.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
26190651
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4663076
[Available on 2016-09-01]
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