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Nature. 2015 Jul 9;523(7559):177-82. doi: 10.1038/nature14581. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer.

Author information

  • 1Department of Cancer Biology, Metastasis Research Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA.
  • 2Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), HUCA, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.
  • 3Department of Cancer Systems Imaging, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA.
  • 4Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
  • 5Department of Gastrointestinal, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Medizinische Fakult├Ąt Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universit├Ąt Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
  • 61] Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), HUCA, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain [2] Department of Immunology and Oncology, National Center for Biotechnology, CNB-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Exosomes are lipid-bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in the circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identify a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer-cell-derived exosomes. GPC1(+) circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of patients and mice with cancer. GPC1(+) crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreatic cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreatic disease from patients with early- and late-stage pancreatic cancer. Levels of GPC1(+) crExos correlate with tumour burden and the survival of pre- and post-surgical patients. GPC1(+) crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreatic tumours carry specific KRAS mutations, and reliably detect pancreatic intraepithelial lesions in mice despite negative signals by magnetic resonance imaging. GPC1(+) crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreatic cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy.

PMID:
26106858
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4825698
[Available on 2016-07-09]
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