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Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 May 12;9:281. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00281. eCollection 2015.

Neuroprotective effects of yoga practice: age-, experience-, and frequency-dependent plasticity.

Author information

  • 1National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD USA ; Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.
  • 2National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD USA ; Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.
  • 3National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD USA ; Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada ; Department of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.

Abstract

Yoga combines postures, breathing, and meditation. Despite reported health benefits, yoga's effects on the brain have received little study. We used magnetic resonance imaging to compare age-related gray matter (GM) decline in yogis and controls. We also examined the effect of increasing yoga experience and weekly practice on GM volume and assessed which aspects of weekly practice contributed most to brain size. Controls displayed the well documented age-related global brain GM decline while yogis did not, suggesting that yoga contributes to protect the brain against age-related decline. Years of yoga experience correlated mostly with GM volume differences in the left hemisphere (insula, frontal operculum, and orbitofrontal cortex) suggesting that yoga tunes the brain toward a parasympatically driven mode and positive states. The number of hours of weekly practice correlated with GM volume in the primary somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobule (S1/SPL), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus, and primary visual cortex (V1). Commonality analyses indicated that the combination of postures and meditation contributed the most to the size of the hippocampus, precuneus/PCC, and S1/SPL while the combination of meditation and breathing exercises contributed the most to V1 volume. Yoga's potential neuroprotective effects may provide a neural basis for some of its beneficial effects.

KEYWORDS:

age-related gray matter decline; magnetic resonance imaging; neuroprotection; voxel-based morphometry; yoga

PMID:
26029093
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC4428135
Free PMC Article
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