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Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Apr;44(2):551-65. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyv083. Epub 2015 May 22.

Coffee intake and risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark, Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark, Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark, Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark, Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark, Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Boerge.Nordestgaard@regionh.dk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages. We tested the hypothesis that genetically high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof.

METHODS:

We included 93,179 individuals from two large general population cohorts in a Mendelian randomization study. We tested first whether high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof, in observational analyses; second, whether five genetic variants near the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and AHR genes are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variants are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof. Finally, we tested the genetic association with type 2 diabetes in a meta-analysis including up to 78,021 additional individuals from the DIAGRAM consortium.

RESULTS:

Observationally, high coffee intake was associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Further, high coffee intake was associated with high body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol and with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with glucose levels. In genetic analyses, 9-10 vs 0-3 coffee-intake alleles were associated with 29% higher coffee intake. However, genetically derived high coffee intake was not associated convincingly with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or glucose levels. Per-allele meta-analysed odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.01 (0.98-1.04) for AHR rs4410790, 0.98 (0.95-1.01) for AHR rs6968865, 1.01 (0.99-1.03) for CYP1A1/2 rs2470893, 1.01 (0.98-1.03) for CYP1A1/2 rs2472297 and 0.98 (0.95-1.01) for CYP1A1 rs2472299.

CONCLUSIONS:

High coffee intake was associated observationally with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and was associated observationally with related components thereof, but with no genetic evidence to support corresponding causal relationships.

© The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

KEYWORDS:

BMI; Coffee; blood pressure; metabolic syndrome; plasma cholesterol; plasma glucose; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
26002927
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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