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High Alt Med Biol. 2015 Jun;16(2):162-8. doi: 10.1089/ham.2015.0026. Epub 2015 May 14.

Noninvasive Assessment of Excessive Erythrocytosis as a Screening Method for Chronic Mountain Sickness at High Altitude.

Author information

  • 11 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland.
  • 22 Biomedical Research Unit, A.B. PRISMA , Lima, Peru .
  • 33 Program in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland.
  • 44 Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Laboratorio de Adaptación a la Altura, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia , Lima, Peru .
  • 55 CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia , Lima, Peru .
  • 66 Departamento de Medicina, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia , Lima, Peru .

Abstract

Vyas, Kaetan J., David Danz, Robert H. Gilman, Robert A. Wise, Fabiola León-Velarde, J. Jaime Miranda, and William Checkley. Noninvasive assessment of excessive erythrocytosis as a screening method for chronic mountain sickness at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:162-168, 2015.--Globally, over 140 million people are at risk of developing chronic mountain sickness, a common maladaptation to life at high altitude (>2500 meters above sea level). The diagnosis is contingent upon the identification of excessive erythrocytosis (EE). Current best practices to identify EE require a venous blood draw, which is cumbersome for large-scale surveillance. We evaluated two point-of-care biomarkers to screen for EE: noninvasive spot-check tests of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pronto-7, Masimo Corporation). We conducted paired evaluations of total serum hemoglobin from a venous blood draw and noninvasive, spot-check testing of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation with the Pronto-7 in 382 adults aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru (3825 meters above sea level). We used the Bland-Altman method to measure agreement between the noninvasive hemoglobin assessment and the gold standard lab hemoglobin analyzer. Mean age was 58.8 years and 47% were male. The Pronto-7 test was unsuccessful in 21 (5%) participants. Limits of agreement between total hemoglobin measured via venous blood draw and the noninvasive, spot-check test ranged from -2.8 g/dL (95% CI -3.0 to -2.5) to 2.5 g/dL (95% CI 2.2 to 2.7), with a bias of -0.2 g/dL (95% CI -0.3 to -0.02) for the difference between total hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin concentrations. Overall, the noninvasive spot-check test of total hemoglobin had a better area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to oxyhemoglobin saturation for the identification of EE as measured by a gold standard laboratory hemoglobin analyzer (0.96 vs. 0.82; p<0.001). Best cut-off values to screen for EE with the Pronto 7 were ≥19.9 g/dL in males and ≥17.5 g/dL in females. At these cut-points, sensitivity and specificity were both 92% and 89% for males and females, respectively. A noninvasive, spot-check test of total hemoglobin had low bias and high discrimination for the detection of EE in high altitude Peru, and may be a useful point-of-care tool for large-scale surveillance in high-altitude settings.

KEYWORDS:

chronic mountain sickness; excessive erythrocytosis; noninvasive methods; screening

PMID:
25973777
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4490741
[Available on 2016-06-01]
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