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Neuron. 2015 May 6;86(3):617-31. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.03.021.

Brains, genes, and primates.

Author information

  • 1Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
  • 2Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
  • 3The Gatsby Charitable Foundation, The Peak, 5 Wilton Road, London SW1V 1AP, UK.
  • 4Department of Philosophy, University of California, San Diego, 1500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
  • 5Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 43 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
  • 6Department of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology and Department of Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, 6060 Biomedical Science Tower 3, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
  • 7Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
  • 8Section on Cognitive Neurophysiology and Imaging, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20192, USA.
  • 9Department of Psychology and Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
  • 10Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Meliora Hall, Box 270268, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0268, USA.
  • 11Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy, Oregon Health and Science University, 3303 S.W. Bond Avenue, Portland, OR 97239, USA; Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 N.W. 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
  • 12School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics/Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Stem Cell Program, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
  • 13Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
  • 14Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Laboratory for Marmoset Neural Architecture, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
  • 15Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address: reynolds@salk.edu.
  • 16Department of Neurobiology and Department of Psychology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 92093, USA.
  • 17Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
  • 18Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 49 Convent Drive, MSC 1065, Building 49, Room 3A72, Bethesda, MD 20892-1065, USA.
  • 19Brain Institute and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
  • 20Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, 43 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Erratum in

  • Neuron. 2015 Aug 5;87(3):671.

Abstract

One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators, and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
25950631
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4425847
Free PMC Article
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