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J Mol Biol. 1989 Sep 20;209(2):205-19.

Proteins binding to the liver-specific pyruvate kinase gene promoter. A unique combination of known factors.

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  • 1Unité de Recherches en Génétique et Pathologie Moléculaires, INSERM U. 129 CHU Cochin, Paris, France.


A 183 base-pair fragment of the liver-specific promoter of the L-type puruvate kinase (L-PK) gene has been shown by transfection assay to be sufficient to confer a tissue-specific expression to a reporter gene. The proteins binding in vitro to this fragment have been investigated by a combination of DNase I footprinting, gel retardation of synthetic oligonucleotides and ultraviolet cross-linking. Four proteins from liver nuclear extracts bind to the investigated fragment. They were called, from 3' to 5', L1 to L4 binding factors. The L1 site (nucleotides -95 to -66 with respect to the cap site) binds hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1), a liver-specific protein. The L2 site (nucleotides -114 to -97) binds the ubiquitous nuclear factor 1 (NF1), or a related factor. The L3 site (nucleotides -144 to -126) binds liver factor A1 (LF-A1), another liver-specific protein. Finally, the L4 site (nucleotides -168 to -145) binds major late transcription factor (MLTF/USF/UEF), an ubiquitous protein. Each of these proteins has been detected in other liver-specific promoters, but their combination is unique to the liver-specific promoter of the L-PK gene.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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