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Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Aug;66(2):266-73. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.01.021. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Serum Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Cardiovascular Outcomes and Diabetes: Findings From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

Author information

  • 1Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: shahr@email.chop.edu.
  • 2School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • 3Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 4Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA.
  • 6Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 7Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 8The George Washington University, Washington, DC.
  • 9National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD.
  • 10Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, CA.
  • 11Medicine, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center and University of Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago; Center of Innovation for Complex Chronic Healthcare, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, IL.
  • 12Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland, CA.
  • 13Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA.
  • 14National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD.
  • 15Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA.
  • 16Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: muredach@mail.med.upenn.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiometabolic disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a potential mediator of both atherosclerosis and metabolic disease. Studies of the relationship of CX3CL1 with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and metabolic traits are lacking, particularly in the high-risk setting of CKD.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational analysis.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

Adults with CKD from 7 US sites participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

PREDICTOR:

Quartiles of plasma CX3CL1 levels at baseline.

OUTCOMES:

Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate from a creatinine and cystatin C-based equation, prevalent and incident CVD, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its criteria, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c level, myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and the composite outcome of myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality.

RESULTS:

Among 3,687 participants, baseline CX3CL1 levels were associated positively with several CVD risk factors and metabolic traits, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, as well as prevalent CVD (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.19; P=0.03). Higher CX3CL1 level also was associated with prevalent diabetes (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.38; P<0.001) in adjusted models. During a mean follow-up of 6 years, there were 352 deaths, 176 myocardial infarctions, and 484 composite outcomes. In fully adjusted models, 1-SD higher CX3CL1 level increased the hazard for all-cause mortality (1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.22; P=0.02) and the composite outcome (1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.19; P=0.04).

LIMITATIONS:

Study design did not allow evaluation of changes over time, correlation with progression of phenotypes, or determination of causality of effect.

CONCLUSIONS:

Circulating CX3CL1 level may contribute to both atherosclerotic CVD and diabetes in a CKD cohort. Further studies are required to establish mechanisms through which CX3CL1 affects the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetes.

Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiometabolic disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease (CVD); chronic kidney disease (CKD); diabetes; fractalkine (CX3CL1); metabolic syndrome

PMID:
25795074
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4516570
[Available on 2016-08-01]

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