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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec;86(24):9642-6.

Evolution of a bifunctional enzyme: 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143.


The bifunctional rat liver enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-phosphotransferase/D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphohydrolase, EC is constructed of two independent catalytic domains. We present evidence that the kinase and bisphosphatase halves of the bifunctional enzyme are, respectively, structurally similar to the glycolytic enzymes 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and phosphoglycerate mutase. Computer-assisted modeling of the C-terminal bisphosphatase domain reveals a hydrophobic core and active site residue constellation equivalent to the yeast mutase structure; structural differences map to length-variable, surface-located loops. Sequence patterns derived from the structural alignment of mutases and the bisphosphatase further detect a significant similarity to a family of acid phosphatases. The N-terminal kinase domain, in turn, is predicted to form a nucleotide-binding fold that is analogous to a segment of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, suggesting that these unrelated enzymes bind fructose 6-phosphate and ATP substrates in a similar geometry. This analysis indicates that the bifunctional enzyme is the likely product of gene fusion of kinase and mutase/phosphatase catalytic units.

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