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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13;112(2):518-23. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407466112. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Activated CD4+CCR5+ T cells in the rectum predict increased SIV acquisition in SIVGag/Tat-vaccinated rhesus macaques.

Author information

  • 1Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329;
  • 2Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642;
  • 3Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462;
  • 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;
  • 5Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • 6Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329; gsilves@emory.edu.

Abstract

An effective T-cell-based AIDS vaccine should induce strong HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in mucosal tissues without increasing the availability of target cells for the virus. Here, we evaluated five immunization strategies that include Human adenovirus-5 (AdHu5), Chimpanzee adenovirus-6 (AdC6) or -7 (AdC7), Vaccinia virus (VV), and DNA given by electroporation (DNA/EP), all expressing Simian immunodeficiency virus group specific antigen/transactivator of transcription (SIV(mac239Gag/Tat)). Five groups of six rhesus macaques (RMs) each were vaccinated with DNA/EP-AdC6-AdC7, VV-AdC6-AdC7, DNA/-EP-VV-AdC6, DNA/EP-VV-AdC7, or AdHu5-AdHu5-AdHu5 and were challenged repeatedly with low-dose intrarectal SIVmac239. Upon challenge, there were no significant differences among study groups in terms of virus acquisition or viral load after infection. When taken together, the immunization regimens did not protect against SIV acquisition compared with controls but did result in an ∼ 1.6-log decline in set-point viremia. Although all immunized RMs had detectable SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in blood and rectal mucosa, we found no correlation between the number or function of these SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and protection against SIV acquisition. Interestingly, RMs experiencing breakthrough infection showed significantly higher prechallenge levels of CD4(+)C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5)(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells in the rectal biopsies (RB) than animals that remained uninfected. In addition, among the infected RMs, the percentage of CD4(+)CCR5(+)Ki-67(+) T cells in RBs prechallenge correlated with higher early viremia. Overall, these data suggest that the levels of activated CD4(+)CCR5(+) target T cells in the rectal mucosa may predict the risk of SIV acquisition in RMs vaccinated with vectors that express SIVGag/Tat.

KEYWORDS:

CD4; HIV; SIV; vaccination

PMID:
25550504
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4299179
Free PMC Article
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