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Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;33(1):56-62. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

Diagnostic utility of major salivary gland ultrasonography in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Author information

  • 1Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen; and Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
  • 2Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen; and Department of Clinical Science, Section for Rheumatology, University of Bergen, Norway.
  • 3Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen; and Department of Clinical Dentistry, Section for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate major salivary gland ultrasonography (US) in relation to symptoms and findings of oral and ocular dryness, and autoimmune disease, for potential use in diagnosis and follow-up of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).

METHODS:

Patients with pSS were recruited from the Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital. The parotid and submandibular salivary glands were examined by US using a simplified scoring system for glandular homogeneity and hypoechogenic areas. Scans were graded on a scale 0-3, grades 0-1 considered corresponding to normal/non-specific changes and grades 2-3 to pathological changes. Sicca symptoms of the mouth and eyes, salivary gland capacity, tear secretion, minor salivary gland inflammation, serum autoantibodies, and fatigue were also investigated.

RESULTS:

US was performed in 97 patients. Oral and ocular sicca symptoms correlated with US score and decreased saliva levels. Fatigue VAS correlated with oral sicca symptoms but was inversely correlated with age. Patients with normal/non-specific US findings tended to be older than patients with pathological US findings. US score correlated with unstimulated and stimulated salivary secretion and tear secretion. Minor salivary gland inflammation correlated with major salivary gland US findings, and lymphoid organisation, germinal centre (GC)-like structures, in the minor salivary gland tissue biopsies was seemingly related to US pathology. Serum autoantibodies against Ro/SSA and/or La/SSB were associated with US pathology.

CONCLUSIONS:

US findings in major salivary glands correlate with subjective and objective oral and ocular items as well as systemic autoimmune features of pSS. US represents a useful imaging tool for diagnostics and follow-up of pSS.

PMID:
25535773
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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