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Hypertension. 2015 Mar;65(3):691-6. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

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  • 1From the Unit of Population Epidemiology, Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care and Emergency Medicine (I.G.), Service of Nephrology, Department of Specialties (B.P., P.-Y.M.), Department of Cardiology (G.E.), and Unit of Hypertension, Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care and Emergency Medicine (I.G., A.P.-B.), University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP) (I.G., B.P., G.E., P.V., F.P., M.B.), and Department of Medicine, Service of Nephrology (M.P., M.B.), University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Clinic for Nephrology, Hypertension and Clinical Pharmacology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland (D.A., M.M., B.V.); Unit of Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Centre for Psychiatric Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Hospital of Cery, Prilly, Switzerland (N.A., C.B.E.); Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University Leuven, Belgium (J.S., Y.G.); Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands (J.S.); and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland (C.B.E.). idris.guessous@hcuge.ch.
  • 2From the Unit of Population Epidemiology, Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care and Emergency Medicine (I.G.), Service of Nephrology, Department of Specialties (B.P., P.-Y.M.), Department of Cardiology (G.E.), and Unit of Hypertension, Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care and Emergency Medicine (I.G., A.P.-B.), University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP) (I.G., B.P., G.E., P.V., F.P., M.B.), and Department of Medicine, Service of Nephrology (M.P., M.B.), University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Clinic for Nephrology, Hypertension and Clinical Pharmacology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland (D.A., M.M., B.V.); Unit of Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Centre for Psychiatric Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Hospital of Cery, Prilly, Switzerland (N.A., C.B.E.); Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University Leuven, Belgium (J.S., Y.G.); Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands (J.S.); and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland (C.B.E.).

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Abstract

Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

© 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

KEYWORDS:

ambulatory blood pressure; caffeine; paraxanthine; population; theophylline

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PMID:
25489060
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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