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Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:849031. doi: 10.1155/2014/849031. Epub 2014 Nov 16.

Excessive refined carbohydrates and scarce micronutrients intakes increase inflammatory mediators and insulin resistance in prepubertal and pubertal obese children independently of obesity.

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  • 1Unit of Research in Medical Nutrition, Pediatric Hospital, National Medical Center "Siglo XXI", Mexican Institute of Social Security, P.O. Box C-029 CSPI, Coahuila No. 5 Col. Roma, 06703 México, DF, Mexico.
  • 2Nutrition and Bioprogramming Research Department, National Institute of Perinatology "Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes", México, DF, Mexico.
  • 3Department of Community Health Research, Infantile Hospital of México "Federico Gómez", México, DF, Mexico.
  • 4Faculty of Health Sciences, North University Anahuac, Huixquilucan, MEX, Mexico.



Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance.


To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children.


A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis.


While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P < 0.01). Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin.


Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

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