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Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Nov 6;95(5):535-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.10.004. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Partitioning heritability of regulatory and cell-type-specific variants across 11 common diseases.

Collaborators (324)

Ripke S, Neale BM, Corvin A, Walters JT, Farh KH, Holmans PA, Lee P, Bulik-Sullivan B, Collier DA, Huang H, Pers TH, Agartz I, Agerbo E, Albus M, Alexander M, Amin F, Bacanu SA, Begemann M, Belliveau RA Jr, Bene J, Bergen SE, Bevilacqua E, Bigdeli TB, Black DW, Børglum AD, Bruggeman R, Buccola NG, Buckner RL, Byerley W, Cahn W, Cai G, Campion D, Cantor RM, Carr VJ, Carrera N, Catts SV, Chambert KD, Chan RC, Chen RY, Chen EY, Cheng W, Cheung EF, Chong SA, Cloninger CR, Cohen D, Cohen N, Cormican P, Craddock N, Crowley JJ, Curtis D, Davidson M, Davis KL, Degenhardt F, Del Favero J, DeLisi LE, Demontis D, Dikeos D, Dinan T, Djurovic S, Donohoe G, Drapeau E, Duan J, Dudbridge F, Durmishi N, Eichhammer P, Eriksson J, Escott-Price V, Essioux L, Fanous AH, Farrell MS, Frank J, Franke L, Freedman R, Freimer NB, Friedl M, Friedman JI, Fromer M, Genovese G, Georgieva L, Gershon ES, Giegling I, Giusti-Rodrguez P, Godard S, Goldstein JI, Golimbet V, Gopal S, Gratten J, Grove J, de Haan L, Hammer C, Hamshere ML, Hansen M, Hansen T, Haroutunian V, Hartmann AM, Henskens FA, Herms S, Hirschhorn JN, Hoffmann P, Hofman A, Hollegaard MV, Hougaard DM, Ikeda M, Joa I, Julià A, Kahn RS, Kalaydjieva L, Karachanak-Yankova S, Karjalainen J, Kavanagh D, Keller MC, Kelly BJ, Kennedy JL, Khrunin A, Kim Y, Klovins J, Knowles JA, Konte B, Kucinskas V, Kucinskiene ZA, Kuzelova-Ptackova H, Kähler AK, Laurent C, Keong JL, Lee SH, Legge SE, Lerer B, Li M, Li T, Liang KY, Lieberman J, Limborska S, Loughland CM, Lubinski J, Lnnqvist J, Macek M Jr, Magnusson PK, Maher BS, Maier W, Mallet J, Marsal S, Mattheisen M, Mattingsdal M, McCarley RW, McDonald C, McIntosh AM, Meier S, Meijer CJ, Melegh B, Melle I, Mesholam-Gately RI, Metspalu A, Michie PT, Milani L, Milanova V, Mokrab Y, Morris DW, Mors O, Mortensen PB, Murphy KC, Murray RM, Myin-Germeys I, Mller-Myhsok B, Nelis M, Nenadic I, Nertney DA, Nestadt G, Nicodemus KK, Nikitina-Zake L, Nisenbaum L, Nordin A, O'Callaghan E, O'Dushlaine C, O'Neill FA, Oh SY, Olincy A, Olsen L, Van Os J, Pantelis C, Papadimitriou GN, Papiol S, Parkhomenko E, Pato MT, Paunio T, Pejovic-Milovancevic M, Perkins DO, Pietilinen O, Pimm J, Pocklington AJ, Powell J, Price A, Pulver AE, Purcell SM, Quested D, Rasmussen HB, Reichenberg A, Reimers MA, Richards AL, Roffman JL, Roussos P, Ruderfer DM, Salomaa V, Sanders AR, Schall U, Schubert CR, Schulze TG, Schwab SG, Scolnick EM, Scott RJ, Seidman LJ, Shi J, Sigurdsson E, Silagadze T, Silverman JM, Sim K, Slominsky P, Smoller JW, So HC, Spencer CC, Stahl EA, Stefansson H, Steinberg S, Stogmann E, Straub RE, Strengman E, Strohmaier J, Stroup TS, Subramaniam M, Suvisaari J, Svrakic DM, Szatkiewicz JP, Sderman E, Thirumalai S, Toncheva D, Tooney PA, Tosato S, Veijola J, Waddington J, Walsh D, Wang D, Wang Q, Webb BT, Weiser M, Wildenauer DB, Williams NM, Williams S, Witt SH, Wolen AR, Wong EH, Wormley BK, Wu JQ, Xi HS, Zai CC, Zheng X, Zimprich F, Wray NR, Stefansson K, Visscher PM, Adolfsson R, Andreassen OA, Blackwood DH, Bramon E, Buxbaum JD, Brglum AD, Cichon S, Darvasi A, Domenici E, Ehrenreich H, Esko T, Gejman PV, Gill M, Gurling H, Hultman CM, Iwata N, Jablensky AV, Jönsson EG, Kendler KS, Kirov G, Knight J, Lencz T, Levinson DF, Li QS, Liu J, Malhotra AK, McCarroll SA, McQuillin A, Moran JL, Mortensen PB, Mowry BJ, Nthen MM, Ophoff RA, Owen MJ, Palotie A, Pato CN, Petryshen TL, Posthuma D, Rietschel M, Riley BP, Rujescu D, Sham PC, Sklar P, St Clair D, Weinberger DR, Wendland JR, Werge T, Daly MJ, Sullivan PF, O'Donovan MC, Ripke S, O'Dushlaine C, Chambert K, Moran JL, Kähler AK, Akterin S, Bergen S, Magnusson PK, Neale BM, Ruderfer D, Scolnick E, Purcell S, McCarroll S, Sklar P, Hultman CM, Sullivan PF.

Abstract

Regulatory and coding variants are known to be enriched with associations identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex disease, but their contributions to trait heritability are currently unknown. We applied variance-component methods to imputed genotype data for 11 common diseases to partition the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg(2)) across functional categories (while accounting for shared variance due to linkage disequilibrium). Extensive simulations showed that in contrast to current estimates from GWAS summary statistics, the variance-component approach partitions heritability accurately under a wide range of complex-disease architectures. Across the 11 diseases DNaseI hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) from 217 cell types spanned 16% of imputed SNPs (and 24% of genotyped SNPs) but explained an average of 79% (SE = 8%) of hg(2) from imputed SNPs (5.1× enrichment; p = 3.7 × 10(-17)) and 38% (SE = 4%) of hg(2) from genotyped SNPs (1.6× enrichment, p = 1.0 × 10(-4)). Further enrichment was observed at enhancer DHSs and cell-type-specific DHSs. In contrast, coding variants, which span 1% of the genome, explained <10% of hg(2) despite having the highest enrichment. We replicated these findings but found no significant contribution from rare coding variants in independent schizophrenia cohorts genotyped on GWAS and exome chips. Our results highlight the value of analyzing components of heritability to unravel the functional architecture of common disease.

Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
25439723
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4225595
Free PMC Article
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