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Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Oct;9(10):4495-506.

E2F from adenovirus-infected cells binds cooperatively to DNA containing two properly oriented and spaced recognition sites.

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  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08540.


E2F is a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor which binds to sites that occur in pairs upstream of the adenovirus E1A and E2 early transcriptional start sites. Substantial quantities of E2F activity were found in uninfected-cell extracts, and there was a modest increase in E2F activity during an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection. In uninfected cells, E2F was found to exist in multiple forms that could be separated chromatographically. Extracts prepared at 24 h after Ad5 infection contained a new form of E2F. This infection-specific form may have been a modified version of one of the forms present in uninfected cells. The infection-specific E2F was shown to bind cooperatively to a pair of E2F sites found upstream of the Ad2 early region 2 mRNA cap site. This binding was sensitive to the spacing between the sites and their relative orientation. In contrast, E2F binding in uninfected-cell extracts was unaffected by changes in orientation and spacing, consistent with very low cooperativity or independent binding.

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