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Nutrition. 2014 Nov-Dec;30(11-12):1398-403. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.012. Epub 2014 May 9.

Estimated dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address: giuseppe.grosso@studium.unict.it.
  • 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of known individual polyphenols and their major dietary sources in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study.

METHODS:

A total of 10,477 random sample (45-69 y) of urban population of Krakow, Poland, completed a validated 148-item food frequency questionnaire. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the recently developed Phenol-Explorer database.

RESULTS:

The mean intake of polyphenols was 1756.5 ± 695.8 mg/d (median = 1662.5 mg/d). The main polyphenol groups were flavonoids (897 mg/d) and phenolic acids (800 mg/d). A total of 347 polyphenols from 19 polyphenol subclasses were found. The individual compounds with the highest intakes were isomers of chlorogenic acid (i.e., 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 4-caffeoylquinic acid) among hydroxycinnamic acids (average intake 150 mg/d), that largely originated from coffee, and compounds belonging to the catechin chemical family (i.e., [+]-gallocatechin, [-]-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, and [-]-epicatechin) among flavanols (average intake 50 mg/d), that mostly originated from tea and cocoa products.

CONCLUSIONS:

The current study provides the most updated data for individual polyphenols intake in the diet of a well-established nutritional cohort. These findings will be useful to assess potential beneficial role on health of specific foods with high polyphenol content and characterize the effects of individual phenolic compounds.

Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Food sources; General population; Intake; Polish adults; Polyphenols

PMID:
25280419
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4192147
Free PMC Article
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