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J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 25;264(3):1767-74.

Secretion and degradation of lipoprotein lipase in cultured adipocytes. Binding of lipoprotein lipase to membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is necessary for degradation.

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  • 1Division of Biological Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.


Equilibrium-binding data of highly purified 125I-labeled avian lipoprotein lipase to cultured avian adipocytes demonstrate the presence of a class of high affinity binding sites. Analysis of the binding function yielded an association constant of 0.62 x 10(8)M-1 and a maximum binding capacity of 2.1 micrograms/60-mm dish. From a time course of dissociation of 125I-lipoprotein lipase from adipocytes at 4 degrees C, a dissociation rate constant of 6.1 x 10(-5)s-1 was obtained. Pretreatment of cells with heparinase and heparitinase resulted in a quantitative suppression of the high affinity binding component, establishing that lipoprotein lipase is bound to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. At 37 degrees C, cell surface-bound 125I-lipoprotein lipase is internalized and either degraded or recycled to the medium. The degradation rate constant for 125I-lipoprotein lipase was estimated to be 0.78 h-1. The degradation rate constant was reduced 6-fold when cells were exposed to 100 microM chloroquine, indicating that most of the degradation occurs within the lysosomal compartment. By using cells that had been pulsed with Trans35S-label for 1 h, it was demonstrated that acute treatment with endoglycosidases for up to 1 h resulted in a new lipoprotein lipase secretion rate which was 6-fold higher than that of control cells. Degradation of newly synthesized lipoprotein lipase was essentially blocked 30 min after the initiation of the chase. In other studies it was observed that there were no additive effects of chloroquine and either endoglycosidase or heparin treatment on total lipoprotein lipase levels (intracellular, cell surface, and medium) in adipocyte cultures. These experiments support the hypothesis that the release of lipoprotein lipase from its receptor prevents its internalization and degradation and enhances enzyme efflux from the adipocyte. A new model of lipoprotein lipase secretion in cultured adipocytes is proposed: Newly synthesized lipoprotein lipase is transported to the cell surface where it binds to specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptors. The enzyme is either released to the medium or internalized via the receptor, in which case the enzyme is degraded or recycled to the cell surface. Major determinants of enzyme efflux from the cell surface include the number and integrity of receptors, the association constant of the enzyme-receptor complex, and the presence in the medium of competing molecules with high affinity for lipoprotein lipase. In this model, modulation of lipoprotein lipase degradation rate may be a significant mechanism for acute regulation of enzyme efflux independent of changes in the rate of enzyme synthesis.

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