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Jpn J Cancer Res. 1989 Nov;80(11):1058-65.

Life-span studies on spontaneous tumor development in the medaka (Oryzias latipes).

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  • 1Department of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute, Tokyo.


A total of 961 medaka, separated chronologically from the first to the fifth year of life, were examined for spontaneous tumor development. While no liver tumors were found in either male or female medaka under the age of 1 year and the incidence in 2-year-old fish was relatively low (males 1.9% and females 1.7%), they became more common with advancing age. The incidence was higher in females than in males from 3 to 5 years of age, reaching 7.1% in 5-year-old female stock. These liver tumors included a total of 12 adenomas and 9 hepatocellular carcinomas. The hepatocellular carcinomas were histologically well differentiated and were all observed in female medaka. Spontaneous tumors occurring in organs other than the liver were rare and sporadic. Four squamous cell carcinomas, 5 melanomas and 4 lymphosarcomas were observed with no sexual or pronounced age bias being evident. The squamous cell carcinomas developed in the surface epithelium with local invasion into the dermis. Melanomas occurred in the abdominal cavity and demonstrated systemic invasion into various parts of the body. Three out of the 4 lymphosarcomas arose from the inner part of the operculum suggesting that these tumors were of thymic origin. They also showed extensive invasion. The data indicate a particular susceptibility of older female medaka to liver but not other tumor development.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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