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PLoS One. 2014 Aug 20;9(8):e105004. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105004. eCollection 2014.

Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

Author information

  • 1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America.
  • 2Neurogenomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America.
  • 3School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America.
  • 4Departments of Psychology and Zoology, Program in Neuroscience, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America.
  • 5School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America; Neurogenomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America.

Abstract

Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

PMID:
25140675
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4139331
Free PMC Article
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