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J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014 Nov;100:74-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2014.07.023. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

Author information

  • 1Institute of Forensic Science, Forensic Toxicology Service, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address: pamela.cabarcos@usc.es.
  • 2Institute of Forensic Science, Forensic Toxicology Service, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
  • 3Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
  • 4Institute of Public Health, Section of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, L.go F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Abstract

This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Ethyl glucuronide; Fatty acid ethyl esters; Meconium; Microwave assisted extraction; Solid phase extraction

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