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Anesth Analg. 2014 Oct;119(4):978-87. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000365.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition prevents remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia via regulating the expression and function of AMPA receptors.

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  • 1From the Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Research Institute of Anesthesiology, Tianjin, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many studies have confirmed that brief remifentanil exposure can enhance pain sensitivity. We previously reported that activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) contributes to remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia via regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. In this study, we demonstrated that GSK-3β inhibition prevented remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia via regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) expression and function in the spinal dorsal horn.

METHODS:

Using a rat model of remifentanil-induced incision hyperalgesia, mechanical and thermal pain was tested 1 day before infusion and 2 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after infusion. Western blot analysis was used to detect AMPAR subunit (GluR1 and GluR2) trafficking, AMPAR phosphorylation status, and GSK-3β activity in the spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to analyze the effect of GSK-3β inhibition on AMPAR-induced current in the spinal dorsal horn.

RESULTS:

Membrane AMPAR subunit GluR1 was upregulated in the spinal cord in remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia rats (275 ± 36.54 [mean ± SD] vs 100 ± 9.53, P = 0.0009). Selective GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and TDZD, treatment ameliorates remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia, and this was associated with the downregulated GluR1 subunit in the membrane fraction (254 ± 23.51 vs 119 ± 14.74, P = 0.0027; 254 ± 23.51 vs 124 ± 9.35, P = 0.0032). Moreover, remifentanil incubation increased the amplitude and the frequency of AMPAR-induced current in dorsal horn neurons (61.09 ± 9.34 pA vs 32.56 ± 6.44 pA, P = 0.0009; 118.32 ± 20.33 milliseconds vs 643.67 ± 43.29 milliseconds, P = 0.0002), which was prevented with the application of LiCl and TDZD, respectively. Remifentanil-induced postoperative pain induced an increase in pGluR1 Ser845 and Rab5, which was prevented with the application of LiCl and TDZD.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results indicate that amelioration of remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia by GSK-3β inhibition is attributed to downregulated AMPAR GluR1 expression in the membrane fraction and inhibition of AMPAR function via altering pGluR1 and Rab5 expression in the spinal dorsal horn.

PMID:
25126703
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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