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Science. 1989 Dec 15;246(4936):1412-6.

The cholinergic neuronal differentiation factor from heart cells is identical to leukemia inhibitory factor.

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  • 1Biology Division, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

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  • Science 1990 Jan 19;247(4940):271.


A protein secreted by cultured rat heart cells can direct the choice of neurotransmitter phenotype made by cultured rat sympathetic neurons. Structural analysis and biological assays demonstrated that this protein is identical to a protein that regulates the growth and differentiation of embryonic stem cells and myeloid cells, and that stimulates bone remodeling and acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes. This protein has been termed D factor, DIA, DIF, DRF, HSFIII, and LIF. Thus, this cytokine, like IL-6 and TGF beta, regulates growth and differentiation in the embryo and in the adult in many tissues, now including the nervous system.

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