Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Neuroreport. 2014 Sep 10;25(13):973-8. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000148.

Reduction of pyramidal and immature hippocampal neurons in pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

Author information

  • 1Departments of aPhysiology and Biophysics bPsychiatry, College of Medicine, Howard University cDepertment of Anatomy, Howard University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia dCalifornia National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, California eDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Abstract

Pediatric HIV infection remains a global health crisis with a worldwide infection rate of 2.5 million (WHO, Geneva Switzerland, 2009). Children are much more susceptible to HIV-1 neurological impairments compared with adults, which is exacerbated by coinfections. A major obstacle in pediatric HIV research is sample access. The proposed studies take advantage of ongoing pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pathogenesis and vaccine studies to test the hypothesis that pediatric SIV infection diminishes neuronal populations and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Newborn rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that received intravenous inoculation of highly virulent SIVmac251 (n=3) or vehicle (control n=4) were used in this study. After a 6-18-week survival time, the animals were euthanized and the brains prepared for quantitative histopathological analysis. Systematic sections through the hippocampus were either Nissl stained or immunostained for doublecortin (DCX+), a putative marker of immature neurons. Using design-based stereology, we report a 42% reduction in the pyramidal neuron population of the CA1, CA2, and CA3 fields of the hippocampus (P<0.05) in SIV-infected infants. The DCX+ neuronal population was also significantly reduced within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The loss of hippocampal neurons and neurogenic capacity may contribute to the rapid neurocognitive decline associated with pediatric HIV infection. These data suggest that pediatric SIV infection, which leads to significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus within 3 months, closely models a subset of pediatric HIV infections with rapid progression.

PMID:
25102373
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4128914
[Available on 2015/9/10]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk