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Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Aug 7;95(2):183-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.07.006. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Pathogenic variants for Mendelian and complex traits in exomes of 6,517 European and African Americans: implications for the return of incidental results.

Collaborators (397)

Gabriel SB, Altshuler DM, Abecasis GR, Allayee H, Cresci S, Daly MJ, de Bakker PI, DePristo MA, Do R, Donnelly P, Farlow DN, Fennell T, Garimella K, Hazen SL, Hu Y, Jordan DM, Jun G, Kathiresan S, Kang HM, Kiezun A, Lettre G, Li B, Li M, Newton-Cheh CH, Padmanabhan S, Peloso G, Pulit S, Rader DJ, Reich D, Reilly MP, Rivas MA, Schwartz S, Scott L, Siscovick DS, Spertus JA, Stitziel NO, Stoletzki N, Sunyaev SR, Voight BF, Willer CJ, Rich SS, Akylbekova E, Atwood LD, Ballantyne CM, Barbalic M, Barr R, Benjamin EJ, Bis J, Boerwinkle E, Bowden DW, Brody J, Budoff M, Burke G, Buxbaum S, Carr J, Chen DT, Chen IY, Chen WM, Concannon P, Crosby J, Cupples L, D'Agostino R, DeStefano AL, Dreisbach A, Dupuis J, Durda J, Ellis J, Folsom AR, Fornage M, Fox CS, Fox E, Funari V, Ganesh SK, Gardin J, Goff D, Gordon O, Grody W, Gross M, Guo X, Hall IM, Heard-Costa NL, Heckbert SR, Heintz N, Herrington DM, Hickson D, Huang J, Hwang SJ, Jacobs DR, Jenny NS, Johnson AD, Johnson CW, Kawut S, Kronmal R, Kurz R, Lange EM, Lange LA, Larson MG, Lawson M, Lewis CE, Levy D, Li D, Lin H, Liu C, Liu J, Liu K, Liu X, Liu Y, Longstreth WT, Loria C, Lumley T, Lunetta K, Mackey AJ, Mackey R, Manichaikul A, Maxwell T, McKnight B, Meigs JB, Morrison AC, Musani SK, Mychaleckyj JC, Nettleton JA, North K, O'Donnell CJ, O'Leary D, Ong FS, Palmas W, Pankow JS, Pankratz ND, Paul S, Perez M, Person SD, Polak J, Post WS, Psaty BM, Quinlan AR, Raffel LJ, Ramachandran VS, Reiner AP, Hutchinson F, Rice K, Rotter JI, Sanders JP, Schreiner P, Seshadri S, Shea S, Sidney S, Silverstein K, Siscovick DS, Smith NL, Sotoodehnia N, Srinivasan A, Taylor HA, Taylor K, Thomas F, Tracy RP, Tsai MY, Volcik KA, Wassel CL, Watson K, Wei G, White W, Wiggins KL, Wilk JB, Williams O, Wilson G, Wilson JG, Wolf P, Zakai NA, Hardy J, Meschia JF, Nalls M, Rich SS, Singleton A, Worrall B, Bamshad MJ, Barnes KC, Abdulhamid I, Accurso F, Anbar R, Beaty T, Bigham A, Black P, Bleecker E, Buckingham K, Cairns AM, Chen WM, Caplan D, Chatfield B, Chidekel A, Cho M, Christiani DC, Crapo JD, Crouch J, Daley D, Dang A, Dang H, De Paula A, DeCelie-Germana J, Dozor A, Drumm M, Dyson M, Emerson J, Emond MJ, Ferkol T, Fink R, Foster C, Froh D, Gao L, Gershan W, Gibson RL, Godwin E, Gondor M, Gutierrez H, Hansel NN, Hassoun PM, Hiatt P, Hokanson JE, Howenstine M, Hummer LK, Jamal SM, Kanga J, Kim Y, Knowles MR, Konstan M, Lahiri T, Laird N, Lange C, Lin L, Lin X, Louie TL, Lynch D, Make B, Martin TR, Mathai SC, Mathias RA, McNamara J, McNamara S, Meyers D, Millard S, Mogayzel P, Moss R, Murray T, Nielson D, Noyes B, O'Neal W, Orenstein D, O'Sullivan B, Pace R, Pare P, Parker H, Passero MA, Perkett E, Prestridge A, Rafaels NM, Ramsey B, Regan E, Ren C, Retsch-Bogart G, Rock M, Rosen A, Rosenfeld M, Ruczinski I, Sanford A, Schaeffer D, Sell C, Sheehan D, Silverman EK, Sin D, Spencer T, Stonebraker J, Tabor HK, Varlotta L, Vergara CI, Weiss R, Wigley F, Wise RA, Wright FA, Wurfel MM, Zanni R, Zou F, Nickerson DA, Rieder MJ, Green P, Shendure J, Akey JM, Bamshad MJ, Bucasas KL, Bustamante CD, Crosslin DR, Eichler EE, Fox P, Fu W, Gordon A, Gravel S, Jarvik GP, Johnsen JM, Kan M, Kenny EE, Kidd JM, Lara-Garduno F, Leal SM, Liu DJ, McGee S, O'Connor TD, Paeper B, Robertson PD, Smith JD, Staples JC, Tennessen JA, Turner EH, Wang G, Yi Q, Jackson R, North K, Peters U, Carlson CS, Anderson G, Anton- Culver H, Assimes TL, Auer PL, Beresford S, Bizon C, Black H, Brunner R, Brzyski R, Burwen D, Caan B, Carty CL, Chlebowski R, Cummings S, Curb J, Eaton CB, Ford L, Franceschini N, Fullerton SM, Gass M, Geller N, Heiss G, Howard BV, Hsu L, Hutter CM, Ioannidis J, Jiao S, Johnson KC, Kooperberg C, Kuller L, LaCroix A, Lakshminarayan K, Lane D, Lange EM, Lange LA, Lasser N, LeBlanc E, Lewis CE, Li KP, Limacher M, Lin DY, Logsdon BA, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis K, Martin L, McGowan J, Monda KL, Kotchen JM, Nathan L, Ockene J, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips LS, Prentice RL, Reiner AP, Robbins J, Robinson JG, Rossouw JE, Sangi- Haghpeykar H, Sarto GE, Shumaker S, Simon MS, Stefanick ML, Stein E, Tang H, Taylor KC, Thomson CA, Thornton TA, Van Horn L, Vitolins M, Wactawski-Wende J, Wallace R, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Zeng D, Applebaum-Bowden D, Feolo M, Gan W, Paltoo DN, Rossouw JE, Sholinsky P, Sturcke A.

Abstract

Exome sequencing (ES) is rapidly being deployed for use in clinical settings despite limited empirical data about the number and types of incidental results (with potential clinical utility) that could be offered for return to an individual. We analyzed deidentified ES data from 6,517 participants (2,204 African Americans and 4,313 European Americans) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. We characterized the frequencies of pathogenic alleles in genes underlying Mendelian conditions commonly assessed by newborn-screening (NBS, n = 39) programs, genes associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, n = 17), and genes known to influence drug response (PGx, n = 14). From these 70 genes, we identified 10,789 variants and curated them by manual review of OMIM, HGMD, locus-specific databases, or primary literature to a total of 399 validated pathogenic variants. The mean number of risk alleles per individual was 15.3. Every individual had at least five known PGx alleles, 99% of individuals had at least one ARMD risk allele, and 45% of individuals were carriers for at least one pathogenic NBS allele. The carrier burden for severe recessive childhood disorders was 0.57. Our results demonstrate that risk alleles of potential clinical utility for both Mendelian and complex traits are detectable in every individual. These findings highlight the necessity of developing guidelines and policies that consider the return of results to all individuals and underscore the need to develop innovative approaches and tools that enable individuals to exercise their choice about the return of incidental results.

Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
25087612
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4129409
Free PMC Article
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