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Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2014 Aug 1;2014(8):815-22. doi: 10.1101/pdb.top083329.

Optogenetics: opsins and optical interfaces in neuroscience.


Optogenetics is defined as the integration of optics and genetics to control well-defined events within specified cells of living tissue. In this introduction, we focus on the basic techniques necessary for employing microbial opsins as optogenetic tools in mammalian brains. We provide a guide for the fundamentals of optogenetic application-selecting an opsin, implementing expression of opsins based on the neuroscientific experimental requirements, and adapting the corresponding optical hardware for delivery of light into mammalian brains.

© 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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