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Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Oct;64(4):499-509. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.05.018. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

25-Hydroxyvitamin D testing and supplementation in CKD: an NKF-KDOQI controversies report.

Author information

  • 1Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola Medical Center, Maywood, IL; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Loyola Medical Center, Maywood, IL. Electronic address:
  • 2Nephrology Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 3Nephrology Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
  • 4St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO.
  • 5Nephrology Section, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.


The benefits of and thresholds for 25-hydroxyvitamin D administration in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain uncertain. In this report, NKF-KDOQI (National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) endeavors to provide health care providers with the latest information on a controversial area in the management of CKD, the role for nutritional vitamin D. Although knowledge of the biological mechanisms of vitamin D for bone maintenance in individuals with all stages of CKD has expanded, no consensus currently exists within the medical community regarding methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation or optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in individuals with CKD. Within this report, existing CKD guidelines are summarized and scrutinized and ongoing clinical trials are cited as sources for future guidance on the optimal management of vitamin D in CKD.

Published by Elsevier Inc.


25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D); NKF-KDOQI (National Kidney Foundation–Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative); calcidiol; chronic kidney disease (CKD); clinical practice guidelines; vitamin D deficiency

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