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J Endod. 2014 Aug;40(8):1087-94. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.11.023. Epub 2014 Jan 7.

Effects of glutamine on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

Author information

  • 1Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 2Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Department of Maxillofacial Tissue Regeneration and Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Regeneration (MRC), School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 4Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 5Department of Maxillofacial Tissue Regeneration and Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Regeneration (MRC), School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: eckim@khu.ac.kr.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Although glutamine (Gln) is mitogenic in various cell types, little is known about its role in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). This study investigated the effects of Gln on proliferation, migration, and odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs and the underlying signal pathway mechanisms.

METHODS:

Growth and migration were assessed by cell counting and colorimetric cell migration kits. Differentiation was measured as alkaline phosphatase activity, calcified nodule formation by alizarin red staining, and marker mRNA expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Chemokine expression was also evaluated by RT-PCR. Signal transduction pathways were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.

RESULTS:

Gln dose-dependently increased proliferation, migration, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralized nodule formation, and odontoblast-marker mRNA of HDPCs. Gln also up-regulated expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, MCP-1, MIP-3α, CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL1. Gln increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 mRNA, phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, β-catenin, and key proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, Gln resulted in up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, noggin, DKK1, inhibitors of p38, ERK, and JNK significantly attenuatted Gln-induced growth, migration, and odontoblastic differentiation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collectively, this study demonstrated that Gln promoted growth, migration, and differentiation in HDPCs through the BMP-2, Wnt, and MAPK pathways, leading to improved pulp repair and regeneration.

Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Differentiation; glutamine; growth; human dental pulp cells; migration

PMID:
25069913
[PubMed - in process]
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