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Nanoscale. 2014 Sep 7;6(17):10281-8. doi: 10.1039/c4nr02751e.

Two-step thermal annealing improves the morphology of spin-coated films for highly efficient perovskite hybrid photovoltaics.

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  • 1Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City, 243, Taiwan.


In this paper, we describe relationships between the morphologies and the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of perovskite photovoltaics having a conventional p-i-n heterojunction structure, indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3-x)Cl(x)/PC(61)BM/Al. The PCE of such a device is highly dependent on the morphology of the perovskite film, which is governed by the concentrations of its precursors and the annealing conditions. A two-step annealing process allowed sufficient crystallization of the perovskite material, with a high coverage at a high precursor concentration. Relative to the device prepared using a one-step process (90 °C for 30 min), we observed a 60% increase in PCE for this optimized device. The corresponding devices exhibited extremely high stability after long-term storage (>1368 h) in the dark in a N2-filled glove box, with consistently high PCEs (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)) of up to 9.1%.

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