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Crit Rev Microbiol. 2016;42(2):222-32. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2014.920291. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

The Eurasian genes of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus: an integrative perspective on their conveyance to and assimilation in America.

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  • 1a Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar-Ilan University , Ramat-Gan , Israel.


The formation of pandemic influenza genotypes varied phylogeographically and ecophylogenetically throughout their fully recognized recent 100-years natural history, involving consistently avian plus human genes, and at times swine genes. The last four traceable pandemic strains (PSs) included two American H1N1 viruses with genomes predominantly containing swine genes, of which at least one genome originated from both America and Eurasia; and two non-H1N1 Asian viruses with genomes entirely originating from Asia, and having no swine genes. This study explores whether there is a particular interhemispheric system underlying such divergence, and its properties. Unlike the assumption that transport of live pigs from Eurasia to America facilitated the formation of the 2009 H1N1 PS in America, it is suggested that conveyance of Eurasian swine genes to America, and their assimilation therein, took place through a distinct, perfectly natural ecophylogenetic machinery. The latter conjunctively involves, foremost, a native Asian duck-swine-man interface, a Holarctic chain of certain migratory Anas ducks, a native American turkey-swine-man interface, and two specific clades of American influenza A viruses. Likewise, the described machinery could have readily given rise to the 1918 H1N1, and, presumably, earlier American PSs, altogether constituting private cases of a much broader, self-sustained, permanent phylogeographic system.


Ecophylogenetic machinery; gene migration; influenza A virus; pandemic genotype; phylogeographic interfaces

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