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J Chromatogr A. 2014 Sep 5;1358:277-84. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.06.081. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Highly sensitive analysis of flavonoids by zwitterionic microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography coupled with light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection.

Author information

  • 1College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China.
  • 2College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China. Electronic address:
  • 3Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310003, China.
  • 4Zhejiang Univ Technol, Coll Pharmaceut Sci, Hangzhou 310014, China.


A rapid zwitterionic microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (ZI-MEEKC) approach coupled with light-emitting-diode-induced fluorescence (LED-IF, 480nm) detection was proposed for the analysis of flavonoids. In the optimization process, we systematically investigated the separation conditions, including the surfactants, cosurfactants, pH, buffers and fluorescence parameters. It was found that the baseline separation of the seven flavonoids was obtained in less than 5min with a running buffer consisting of 92.9% (v/v) 5mM sodium borate, 0.6% (w/v) ZI surfactant, 0.5% (w/v) ethyl acetate and 6.0% (w/v) 1-butanol. High sensitivity was obtained by the application of LED-IF detection. The limits of detection for seven flavonoids were in the range of 3.30×10(-8) to 2.15×10(-6)molL(-1) without derivatization. Ultimately, the detection method was successfully applied to the analysis of flavonoids in hawthorn plant and food products with satisfactory results.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Flavonoids; Fluorescence detector; Hawthorn; Light-emitting diode; Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography; Zwitterionic microemulsion

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