Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Pain. 2014 Oct;15(10):1023-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2014.07.002. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Longitudinal interactions of pain and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. Military service members following blast exposure.

Author information

  • 1Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia; Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia; Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia. Electronic address: Kelcey.Stratton@va.gov.
  • 2Center for Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
  • 3Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
  • 4Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Abstract

Military personnel returning from conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan often endorse pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, either separately or concurrently. Associations between pain and PTSD symptoms may be further complicated by blast exposure from explosive munitions. Although many studies have reported on the prevalence and disability associated with polytraumatic injuries following combat, less is known about symptom maintenance over time. Accordingly, this study examined longitudinal interactive models of co-occurring pain and PTSD symptoms in a sample of 209 military personnel (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 7.6) who experienced combat-related blast exposure. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis examined longitudinal associations between self-reported pain and PTSD symptoms over a 1-year period. The best-fitting covariate model indicated that pain and PTSD were significantly associated with one another across all assessment periods, χ² (3) = 3.66, P = .30, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, comparative fit index = 1.00, root mean squared error of approximation = .03. PTSD symptoms had a particularly strong influence on subsequent pain symptoms. The relationship between pain and PTSD symptoms is related to older age, race, and traumatic brain injury characteristics. Results further the understanding of complex injuries among military personnel and highlight the need for comprehensive assessment and rehabilitation efforts addressing the interdependence of pain and co-occurring mental health conditions.

PERSPECTIVE:

This longitudinal study demonstrates that pain and PTSD symptoms strongly influence one another and interact across time. These findings have the potential to inform the integrative assessment and treatment of military personnel with polytrauma injuries and who are at risk for persistent deployment-related disorders.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic pain; blast injuries; longitudinal studies; military personnel; posttraumatic; stress disorders

PMID:
25038401
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4213927
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk