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JAMA Neurol. 2014 Sep;71(9):1102-10. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1214.

Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 2Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts7Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 3Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston6Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 4Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • 5Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • 6Epidemiology Program, Cancer Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
  • 7Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts6Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts7Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical Scho.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe progressive disease that cannot be prevented or cured. Diet-derived long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are incorporated in brain lipids and modulate oxidative and inflammatory processes and could thus affect ALS risk and progression.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA consumption and ALS risk.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Longitudinal analyses based on 1,002,082 participants (479,114 women and 522,968 men) in 5 prospective cohorts: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the Nurses' Health Study. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire developed or modified for each cohort. Participants were categorized into cohort-specific quintiles of intake of energy-adjusted dietary variables.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Cohort-specific multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of ALS incidence or death estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression and pooled using random-effects methods.

RESULTS:

A total of 995 ALS cases were documented during the follow-up. A greater ω-3 PUFA intake was associated with a reduced risk for ALS. The pooled, multivariable-adjusted RR for the highest to the lowest quintile was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81; P < .001 for trend). Consumption of both α-linolenic acid (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89; P = .003 for trend) and marine ω-3 PUFAs (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.08; P = .03 for trend) contributed to this inverse association. Intakes of ω-6 PUFA were not associated with ALS risk.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Consumption of foods high in ω-3 PUFAs may help prevent or delay the onset of ALS.

PMID:
25023276
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4160351
Free PMC Article
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