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Microbiol Res. 2015 Jan;170:229-34. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2014.06.002. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid mediated anti-oomycete activity of the endophytic Alcaligenes sp. EIL-2 against Phytophthora meadii.

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  • 1Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
  • 2Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry, Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine (CMRCB), University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany.
  • 3School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Electronic address:


The oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora meadii, causes various diseases in Hevea brasiliensis at different stages of its life cycle. The study reports the structural characterization of the active principle from the culture filtrate of Alcaligenes sp. EIL-2 (GenBank ID: HQ641257) offering antagonistic activity against P. meadii. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis showed the similarity of the compound with phenazine derivatives. The specific representations of FT-IR spectrum such as 3200cm(-1) (OH stretching, NH stretching and presence of aromatic ring), 1737cm(-1) (carboxylic acid), 2200-2400cm(-1) (conjugated dienes) and 1467cm(-1), and 1422cm(-1) (CN bonds) were an indicative of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The structure of the compound was further confirmed by (1)H NMR/(13)C NMR spectroscopy, DEPT experiments, and two-dimensional NMR spectral studies, including (1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC as PCA with the molecular formula of C13H8N2O2. P. meadii was sensitive to purified PCA extract from the endophyte and a concentration of 5μg/ml completely inhibited the mycelia growth. PCA also showed zoosporicidal activity against P. meadii zoospores. This is the first study of this kind where PCA from an endophyte of H. brasiliensis is being confirmed to carry antagonistic activity against P. meadii.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Alcaligenes sp.; Endophyte; Hevea brasiliensis; Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid; Phytophthora meadii

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