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Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014 Oct;21(5):723-37. doi: 10.1530/ERC-14-0267. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Elevated YKL40 is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and positively regulates invasion and migration of PCa cells.

Author information

  • 1Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre - QueenslandInstitute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, AustraliaDepartment of Urologic SciencesVancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 2Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre - QueenslandInstitute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, AustraliaDepartment of Urologic SciencesVancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAustralian Prostate Cancer Research Centre - QueenslandInstitute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, AustraliaDepartment of Urologic SciencesVancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 3Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre - QueenslandInstitute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, AustraliaDepartment of Urologic SciencesVancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAustralian Prostate Cancer Research Centre - QueenslandInstitute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, AustraliaDepartment of Urologic SciencesVancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada colleen.nelson@qut.edu.au.

Abstract

Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 or YKL40) is a secreted glycoprotein highly expressed in tumours from patients with advanced stage cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). The exact function of YKL40 is poorly understood, but it has been shown to play an important role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. The therapeutic value and biological function of YKL40 are unknown in PCa. The objective of this study was to examine the expression and function of YKL40 in PCa. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that YKL40 was highly expressed in metastatic PCa cells when compared with less invasive and normal prostate epithelial cell lines. In addition, the expression was primarily limited to androgen receptor-positive cell lines. Evaluation of YKL40 tissue expression in PCa patients showed a progressive increase in patients with aggressive disease when compared with those with less aggressive cancers and normal controls. Treatment of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with androgens increased YKL40 expression, whereas treatment with an anti-androgen agent decreased the gene expression of YKL40 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, knockdown of YKL40 significantly decreased invasion and migration of PCa cells, whereas overexpression rendered them more invasive and migratory, which was commensurate with an enhancement in the anchorage-independent growth of cells. To our knowledge, this study characterises the role of YKL40 for the first time in PCa. Together, these results suggest that YKL40 plays an important role in PCa progression and thus inhibition of YKL40 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCa.

© 2014 The authors.

KEYWORDS:

YKL40; cell invasion; cell migration; metastasis; prostate cancer; targeted therapy

PMID:
24981110
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4134518
Free PMC Article
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