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Mar Drugs. 2014 Jun 27;12(7):3792-817. doi: 10.3390/md12073792.

Flexibilide obtained from cultured soft coral has anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects through the upregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-β1 in neuropathic rats.

Author information

  • 1Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. chen06688@gmail.com.
  • 2Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. johnjohnkings@gmail.com.
  • 3Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 80284, Taiwan. alfaleu@gmail.com.
  • 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 80284, Taiwan. springwei@hotmail.com.tw.
  • 5Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. jay0404@gmail.com.
  • 6Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. chas6119@gmail.com.
  • 7National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung 944, Taiwan. pjsung@nmmba.gov.tw.
  • 8Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan. cssung@vghtpe.gov.tw.
  • 9School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan. y520729@gmail.com.
  • 10Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. davidw@kmu.edu.tw.
  • 11Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University and Academia Sinica, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. jay0404@gmail.com.
  • 12Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. ma4949@cgmh.org.tw.
  • 13Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan. wzh@mail.nsysu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The compound flexibilide, which can be obtained from cultured soft coral, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the rat carrageenan peripheral inflammation model. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive properties of flexibilide in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. First, we found that a single intrathecal (i.t.) administration of flexibilide significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 14 days after surgery. Second, i.t. administration of 10-μg flexibilide twice daily was able to prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in CCI rats. Third, i.t. flexibilide significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as the upregulated proinflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, flexibilide attenuated the CCI-induced downregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) at 14 days after surgery. Finally, i.t. SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, blocked the analgesic effects of flexibilide in CCI rats. Our results suggest that flexibilide may serve as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain. In addition, spinal TGF-β1 may be involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects of flexibilide.

PMID:
24979268
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4113799
Free PMC Article
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