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J Virol. 2014 Sep;88(18):10448-58. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01117-14. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Modulation of CD163 expression by metalloprotease ADAM17 regulates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus entry.

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  • 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.
  • 2State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China wangyue@hvri.ac.cn.

Abstract

As a consequence of their effects on ectodomain shedding, members of the A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family have been implicated in the control of various cellular processes. Although ADAM family members are also involved in cancer, inflammation, and other pathologies, it is unclear whether they affect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of ADAM17 enhances PRRSV entry in Marc-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We also demonstrate that the inhibition of ADAM17 upregulates membrane CD163 expression, a putative PRRSV receptor that is exogenously expressed in BHK-21 and endogenously expressed in Marc-145 and PAMs. Furthermore, overexpression of ADAM17 induced downregulation of CD163 expression and a reduction in PRRSV infection, whereas ablation of ADAM17 expression using specific small interfering RNA resulted in upregulation of CD163 expression with a corresponding increase in PRRSV infection. These ADAM17-mediated effects were confirmed with PRRSV nonpermissive BHK-21 cells transfected with CD163 cDNA. Overall, these findings indicate that ADAM17 downregulates CD163 expression and hinders PRRSV entry. Hence, downregulation of ADAM17 particular substrates may be an additional component of the anti-infection defenses.

IMPORTANCE:

ADAM17 is one of the important membrane-associated metalloproteases that mediate various cellular events, as well as inflammation, cancer, and other pathologies. Here, we investigate for the first time the role of the metalloprotease ADAM17 in PRRSV infection. By using inhibitor and genetic modification methods, we demonstrate that ADAM17 negatively regulate PRRSV entry by regulating its substrate(s). More specifically, ADAM 17 mediates the downregulation of the PRRSV cellular receptor CD163. The reduction in CD163 expression represents another component of the anti-infection response initiated by ADAM17.

Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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