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Neurol Res. 2015 Jan;37(1):9-13. doi: 10.1179/1743132814Y.0000000412. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

The effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in vitro.


One of the most significant side effects during recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for acute stroke treatment is intracranial bleeding. Gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9] are one of the agents involved in the blood-brain barrier destruction resulting in secondary bleeding into the ischemic area during stroke. Previous papers revealed that patients with high baseline MMP-9 serum level have higher risk of intracranial bleeding after thrombolytic therapy. Our objective was to evaluate rtPA influence on serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in vitro. Nine sera obtained from healthy donors were applied for experiment. The commercially available rtPA (Actylise) were diluted with included solvent and additionally with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to get concentrations: 2, 4, 8, and 16 μg/ml. Next, 100 μl of serum was mixed with equal proportion with different concentrations of rtPA to obtain final rtPA concentrations: 1, 2, 4, and 8 μg/ml. The sera together with rtPA were incubated for 1 or 2 hours at 37 °C. The activity of gelatinases was estimated with zymography. The activities of MMP-9 (92 kDa) and MMP-2 (72 kDa) were increased by incubation with rtPA in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneously, the activity of band at 200 kDa (MMP-9/MMP-9 homodimer) was decreased. The activity of gelatinases incubated for 2 hours was elevated in comparison with 1-hour incubation; however, the increase was observed even for sample without rtPA. In conclusion, this study showed that rtPA can increase the biological activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on posttranslational level.


MMP-2,; MMP-9,; Zymography; rtPA,

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