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East Mediterr Health J. 2014 Jun 18;20(6):385-90.

Smokeless tobacco consumption in a multi-ethnic community in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
  • 2King Fahad Hospital, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
  • 3Department of Health Sciences, Hull York Medical School, University of York, York, United Kingdom.


in English, Arabic, French

Smokeless tobacco is commonly used in south Asia. In addition to causing oral and pharyngeal cancers, its harmful effects are comparable to smoking tobacco. A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted in 2010-2011 to investigate smokeless tobacco use in a multi-ethnic, semi-urban population in Islamabad, Pakistan (n = 2030). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was 16.0% (21.6% among males and 8.8% among females); 51.7% of smokeless tobacco users were also cigarette smokers. The rate of smokeless tobacco use was comparatively high among Pakhtun males (38.2%) and Sindhi females (22.4%). The associations between smokeless tobacco use and ethnicity, age group, income level and cigarette smoking were statistically significant among male smokeless tobacco users. Of the sample 41.4% (840/2030) had inadequate knowledge about the health problems associated with smokeless tobacco. Appropriate interventions are needed to raise awareness of the health risks and to prevent smokeless tobacco use.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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