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Steroids. 2014 Oct;88C:106-116. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2014.05.010. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Adverse health effects of testosterone deficiency (TD) in men.

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  • Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, United States. Electronic address: atraish@bu.edu.


Testosterone and its metabolite, 5α-dihydrotestosterone are critical metabolic and vascular hormones, which regulate a host of biochemical pathways including carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and modulate vascular function. Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a well-recognized medical condition with important health implications. TD is associated with a number of co-morbidities including increased body weight, adiposity and increased waist circumference, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, erectile dysfunction (ED) and increased incidence of mortality. In this review, we summarize the data in the literature on the prevalence of TD and its association with the various co-morbidities and suggest that T therapy is necessary to improve health outcomes in men with TD.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cardiovascular disease; Erectile dysfunction; Mortality; Testosterone; Testosterone deficiency; Type 2 diabetes

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