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Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Sep;71:149-58. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.033. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Occurrence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in kindling-free-charcoal grilled meat products in Taiwan.

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  • 1Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan.
  • 2Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan. Electronic address:


This study aimed to determine the contents of 16 PAHs in kindling-free-charcoal grilled meat and seafood products by GC-MS coupled with a QuEChERS method, and estimate the potential risk associated with consumption of those products in Taiwan. Results showed that the total PAHs contents ranged from 6.3±0.9 to 238.8±8.3 ng/g in poultry meat, 0.1±0.0-547.5±12.2 ng/g in red meat, and 6.6±1.4-249.7±6.4 ng/g in seafood products. Among various PAHs, the highly carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was detected in chicken breast grilled at 84°C (30 min), chicken heart at 100°C (26 min), chicken drumstick at 74°C (20 min), duck drumstick at 85°C (40 min), and lamb steak at 88°C (12 min), with its level amounting to 1.3±0.0, 2.4±0.1, 4.0±1.3, 3.1±0.0, and 5.8±0.5 ng/g, respectively. The generation of PAHs was associated with grilling time, temperature and fat content. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to PAHs revealed toxicity equivalent to range from ND - 6.174±0.505 μg/g and margin of exposure was >10,000, which agreed with the EFSA's definition of low public health concern. The lifelong average daily PAHs intake was higher for adults than for elderly people in Taiwan, however, consumption of kindling-free-charcoal grilled meat should not be a public health concern based on cancer risk potency.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lifelong average daily dietary intake; Margin of exposure; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; QuEChERS; Toxicity equivalent; kindling-free charcoal-grilling

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