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N Am J Med Sci. 2014 May;6(5):191-8. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.132916.

Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Evidence-based Management of Cholesterol.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Cooper University Hospital, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, 1 Cooper Plaza, Camden, New Jersey 08103, USA.

Abstract

An elevated level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is directly associated with development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which may present as coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. The new cholesterol management guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association aim to address a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The new guidelines recommend initiation of heart healthy lifestyle modifications and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor ("statin") therapy in individuals who are at a high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that these guidelines could result in "statin" therapy for one in every three adults in the United States. This article presents a review of the current cholesterol management guidelines, recommendations from relevant randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses obtained from the searches in Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and publications from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service, and the United States Preventive Services Task Force.

KEYWORDS:

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; cholesterol management; statin

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