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PLoS One. 2014 Jun 11;9(6):e99337. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099337. eCollection 2014.

New insights on developmental dyslexia subtypes: heterogeneity of mixed reading profiles.

Author information

  • 1Centre Référent de Diagnostic des Troubles du Langage et des Apprentissages, Pôle Couple-Enfant, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Grenoble, France; Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, CNRS, UMR 5105, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
  • 2Centre Référent de Diagnostic des Troubles du Langage et des Apprentissages, Pôle Couple-Enfant, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Grenoble, France.

Abstract

We examined whether classifications based on reading performance are relevant to identify cognitively homogeneous subgroups of dyslexic children. Each of the 71 dyslexic participants was selected to have a mixed reading profile, i.e. poor irregular word and pseudo-word reading performance (accuracy and speed). Despite their homogeneous reading profile, the participants were found to split into four distinct cognitive subgroups, characterized by a single phonological disorder, a single visual attention span disorder, a double deficit or none of these disorders. The two subgroups characterized by single and contrasted cognitive disorders were found to exhibit a very similar reading pattern but more contrasted spelling performance (quantitative analysis). A qualitative analysis of the error types produced in reading and spelling provided some cues about the participants' underlying cognitive deficit. The overall findings disqualify subtyping based on reading profiles as a classification method to identify cognitively homogeneous subgroups of dyslexic children. They rather show an opaque relationship between the cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia and their behavioral manifestations in reading and spelling. Future neuroimaging and genetic studies should take this issue into account since synthesizing over cognitively heterogeneous children would entail potential pitfalls.

PMID:
24918441
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4053380
Free PMC Article

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